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Linux MySql 安装与配置

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标签:daemon   大写   软件   basedir   monitor   cti   start   lec   ant   

为什么选择MySQL数据库?

  毫无疑问,绝大多数的使用linux操作系统的大中小型互联网网站都在使用MySQL作为其后端的数据库存储,从大型的BAT门户,到电商平台,分类门户等无一例都使用MySQL数据库。

My Sql 数据库优点:

1、性能卓越,服务稳定,很少出现异常宕机

2、开放源代码且无版权约束,自主性及使用成本低

3、历史悠久,社区及用户非常活跃,遇到问题,可以寻求帮助

4、软件体积小,安排使用简单,并且易于维护,安装及维护成本低

5、品牌口碑效应,使得企业无需考虑直接用之,LAMP,LEMP流行架构

6、支持多操作系统,提供多种API接口,支持多种开发语言,特别对流行的PHP语言有很好支持

linux软件的安装方式:

1、  yum/rpm:简单 快,无法定制。

2、  编译安装:比较复杂,速度慢,可定制。

./configure;make;make install   gmake;gmake insall  

3、  二进制包*****

直接解压就能用(类似于绿色软件,无需安装) 简单,快,不好定制。

下面我们选择二进制包方法:

1、创建mysql用户

[[email protected] tools]# id mysql
id: mysql:无此用户
[[email protected] tools]# groupadd mysql
[[email protected] tools]# useradd -s /sbin/nologin -g mysql -M mysql
[[email protected] tools]# id mysql
uid=503(mysql) gid=503(mysql) 组=503(mysql)
[[email protected] tools]#

2、下载或上传mysql二进制软件包并解压

[[email protected] tools]# tar xf ./mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz
[[email protected] tools]# ll
总用量 182352
drwxr-xr-x. 13 root root      4096 1月  10 21:54 mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root 186722932 1月  10 21:51 mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz
3、将解压的文件移动到安装目录下,并做软连接(隐藏版本号安全)

[[email protected] tools]# mv mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64 /application/mysql-5.5.32
[[email protected] tools]# ln -s /application/mysql-5.5.32/ /application/mysql
[[email protected] tools]# ll /application/总用量 8l
rwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 26 1月 10 21:57 mysql -> /application/mysql-5.5.32/
drwxr-xr-x. 13 root root 4096 1月 10 21:54 mysql-5.5.32
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 25 12月 19 03:30 nginx -> /application/nginx-1.6.3/
drwxr-xr-x. 11 root root 4096 12月 20 21:12 nginx-1.6.3
[[email protected] tools]#

操作到此步骤相当于编译安装make install 之后。

4、初始化数据库

[[email protected] tools]# /application/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db --basedir=/application/mysql/ --datadir=/application/mysql/data/ --user=mysql
Installing MySQL system tables...
OK
Filling help tables...
OK
解释:

/application/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db   //指定安装的命令

--basedir   //指定mysql安装的目录

--datadir   //存放数据文件的目录

--user     //mysql用户

5、授权mysql管理数据库文件 

[[email protected] tools]# chown -R mysql.mysql /application/mysql/
[[email protected] tools]# cd /application/mysql/
[[email protected] mysql]# ll support-files/*.cnf
-rw-r--r--. 1 mysql mysql  4691 6月  19 2013 support-files/my-huge.cnf
-rw-r--r--. 1 mysql mysql 19759 6月  19 2013 support-files/my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf
-rw-r--r--. 1 mysql mysql  4665 6月  19 2013 support-files/my-large.cnf
-rw-r--r--. 1 mysql mysql  4676 6月  19 2013 support-files/my-medium.cnf
-rw-r--r--. 1 mysql mysql  2840 6月  19 2013 support-files/my-small.cnf
[[email protected] mysql]#
6、生成mysql配置文件

\cp /application/mysql/support-files/my-small.cnf  /etc/my.cnf
7、配置启动mysql

[[email protected] mysql]# sed -i ‘s#/usr/local/mysql#/application/mysql#g‘ /application/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe
[[email protected] mysql]# /application/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe &
[1] 1581
[[email protected] mysql]# 190110 22:29:53 mysqld_safe Logging to ‘/application/mysql/data/lamp0
1.err‘.190110 22:29:53 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /application/mysql/
data
[[email protected] mysql]# lsof -i :3306
COMMAND  PID  USER   FD   TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
mysqld  1799 mysql   10u  IPv4  21901      0t0  TCP *:mysql (LISTEN)
[[email protected] mysql]#

8、配置环境变量

vi /etc/profile

PATH="/application/mysql/bin:$PATH"

source /etc/profile

也可以把mysql命令放到已经有环境变量的路径里

[[email protected] mysql]# echo $PATH
/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin
[[email protected] mysql]# cp /application/mysql/bin/* /usr/local/sbin/
[[email protected] mysql]# which mysql
/usr/local/sbin/mysql
[[email protected] mysql]#
9、登陆测试

[[email protected] mysql]# mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1
Server version: 5.5.32 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type ‘help;‘ or ‘\h‘ for help. Type ‘\c‘ to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

出现以上提示符表示mysql已经安装ok了。如果安装时或者工作中有问题,可以看错误日志分析问题原因:

cat /application/mysql/data/mysql-server.err

10、设置及更改mysql密码

[[email protected]amp01 mysql]# mysqladmin -uroot password "123456"
[[email protected] mysql]# mysql
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user ‘root‘@‘localhost‘ (using password: NO)
[[email protected] mysql]# mysql -uroot -p123456
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.5.32 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type ‘help;‘ or ‘\h‘ for help. Type ‘\c‘ to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

更改密码:

[[email protected] mysql]# mysqladmin -uroot -p123456 password "bqh123"
[[email protected] mysql]# mysql -uroot -p123456
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user ‘root‘@‘localhost‘ (using password: YES)
[[email protected] mysql]# mysql -uroot -pbqh123
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 7
Server version: 5.5.32 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type ‘help;‘ or ‘\h‘ for help. Type ‘\c‘ to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

为了安全起见,我们在登陆时,采用交互式登陆

[[email protected] mysql]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 8
Server version: 5.5.32 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type ‘help;‘ or ‘\h‘ for help. Type ‘\c‘ to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

11、安全优化:删除不必要的库和用户

删除test库:dro database test;

删除无用用户(保留root和localhost)

drop user ‘用户‘@‘主机’;

注意:主机大写或者特殊字符删不了,需用

delete from mysql.user where user=‘用户‘ and host=‘主机大写或特殊字符‘;

如果不小心把这两个也给删除了,恢复方法:

grant all on *.* to ‘root’@localhostt identified by ‘密码’ with grant option;

flush privileges;    #刷新权限

mysql简单的命令:

查看所有库:show databases;   

切库:use mysql;

查看用户列表:select user,host from mysql.user 

查看当前用户:select user();

查看当前所在库:select database();

删除数据库:drop database 库名;

删除用户:drop user ‘用户‘@‘主机‘;

Linux MySql 安装与配置

标签:daemon   大写   软件   basedir   monitor   cti   start   lec   ant   

原文:https://www.cnblogs.com/su-root/p/10247514.html

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