首页 > 其他 > 详细

TPO 02 - Early Cinema

时间:2019-01-18 16:09:30      阅读:26      评论:0      收藏:0      [点我收藏+]

标签:rep   ren   case   但是   which   ould   comm   trick   scree   

TPO 02 - Early Cinema

NOTE:
主要意思(大概就是主谓宾)用粗体标出;重要的其它用斜体;
【】中的是大致意思,可能与原文有关也可能无关,但不会离题
目的为训练句子/段落总结能力
by original markdown

The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater. 【电影院发展有科技的因素】In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. 【peepshow形式下的电影是通过看电影的机器上的一个小洞来看的】 Thomas Edison‘s peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public in 1894. It was designed for use in Kinetoscope parlors 【n. 客厅;会客室;业务室】, or arcades, which【前面那些地方】 contained only a few individual machines and 【主语是机器】permitted only one customer to view a short, 50-foot film at any one time. 【最早发明的peepshow机器很少,只能让一个人看,一次看的时间也很短】The first Kinetoscope parlors contained five machines. For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films 【应该是很贵的,当时人们从一个机器到另一个机器的看电影】(or, in the case of famous prizefights, successive rounds of a single fight). 【段落:介绍最初的peepshow电影形式】

These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on 【be modeled on 仿照】 phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. 【Kinetoscope 仿照照相馆,讲道理照相馆要比电影馆要先出来】The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way. Edison was more interested in the sale of Kinetoscopes (for roughly $1,000 apiece) to these parlors than in the films that would be run in them (which cost approximately $10 to $15 each).【爱迪生最开始是卖机器而不是卖片子,机器特别贵,片子也不便宜】 He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.【爱迪生不改进投影技术,他希望有人买他更多的机器】【段落:peepshow形式下的电影对爱迪生的影响,也可以说刚开始这个发明很成功】

Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of【a handful of 少量的;一小部分】 films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. 【有人开始想赚钱了,他们想把很少的电影让更多的人看到,进而收取费用】 About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison‘s former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience. 【投影设备在许多地方被使用】 【段落:新的投影设备出来了,并且解决了之前的很多问题,而且很成功】

With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, motion pictures became the ultimate form of mass consumption. Previously, large audiences had viewed spectacles at the theater, where vaudeville, popular dramas, musical and minstrel shows, classical plays, lectures, and slide-and-lantern shows had been presented to several hundred spectators at a time. 【很多人已经可以在同一个时间一块看show了】But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which【which指的是 other forms of enterainment 】 depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and-lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies【master of ceremonies 司仪】 who assembled the final program.【这种电影与现场表演或者那种需要有人积极参与参与的节目是不一样的】【段落:这种新电影设备与其他表演的不同】

Although early exhibitors regularly accompanied movies with live acts, the substance of the movies themselves is mass-produced, prerecorded material that can easily be reproduced by theaters with little or no active participation by the exhibitor.【虽然早早期电影是伴随着现场表演的,但是这种电影的实质还是批量生产的并且是提前录好的】 Even though early exhibitors shaped their film programs by mixing films and other entertainments together in whichever way they thought would be most attractive to audiences or by accompanying them with lectures, their creative control remained limited. 【早期的创作是受到限制的,那时候就是将许多电影混合在一块】 What audiences came to see was the technological marvel of the movies; 【观众看到的就是科技上的奇迹罢了】the lifelike reproduction of the commonplace motion of trains, of waves striking the shore, and of people walking in the street; and the magic made possible by trick photography and the manipulation of the camera. 【扩展了一下这些科技上的奇迹,有着摄影技术与相机操作的共同完成的奇迹】 【段落:承接上一段具体讲了哪里不同】

With the advent of projection, the viewer‘s relationship with the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of on strips of celluloid. 【投影技术的出现,人与电影的关系变得不再私密,因为那是的过去的事情了】【】 It【the advent of projection】 suddenly became public-an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores 【score 二十】, and even hundreds of others. 【突然之间,人们可以与许多人共享电影】 At the same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule【adj. 极小的;】 peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of 6 or 9 feet. 【与此同时,人们看到的图像也变大了】 【段落:投影技术对现在的影响】

TPO 02 - Early Cinema

标签:rep   ren   case   但是   which   ould   comm   trick   scree   

原文:https://www.cnblogs.com/leihui/p/10287999.html

(0)
(0)
   
举报
评论 一句话评论(0
0条  
登录后才能评论!
© 2014 designnerd.net 版权所有 鲁ICP备09046678号-4
打开技术之扣,分享程序人生!
             

鲁公网安备 37021202000002号